參考資料:

93年94年(上)94年(下)95年∼

 

What’s Your Sign?

  “Hi, what’s your sign?” Recently, this ice-breaking line has become very popular at parties in Taiwan. Now that astrology has become all the rage, many newspaper, Internet sites, radio programs, and TV talk shows include horoscopes.

   Based on the monthly position of the stars, Western astrology has 12 zodiac signs: Aries, Pisces, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, and Aquarius. People born under each sign are supposed to have particular personality traits.

   But while astrology can be fun, it can also have negative effects because it can lead us to stereotype people. For instance, it is not fair to label every Gemini as indecisive or every Virgo as controlling. Some employers even use astrology to make hiring decisions. To avoid this misuse of astrology, we should remember that people are more than just their zodiac signs.

你的星座是什麼?

  「嗨,你的星座是什麼?」這句在台灣派對裡跟人搭訕的話,最近已非常流行。現在西洋星座所向披靡,許多報紙、網站、收音機節目、電視脫口秀都包括星座這個話題。

   根據每月星座的位置,西洋天象有12個星座:牡羊、雙魚、金牛、雙子、巨蟹、獅子、處女、天秤、天蠍、射手、公羊和水瓶。生在不同星座的人,都有些特別的個性。

   星座固然有趣,但也有負面影響,因為它使我們對某些人抱持成見,例如:把每個雙子座的人都貼標籤為優柔寡斷,或每個處女作都控制慾強,似乎不盡公平。有的老闆居然用星座當作聘人標準!避免誤用星座,我們該記得,人哪裡是十二星座可以涵蓋的!

字彙Vocabulary 

What’s your sign? 你的星座是什麼? born under 生在
ice-breaking 破冰、搭訕 negative effects 負面影響
line 一句話 stereotype 抱持成見
astrology 星座、天象 label 貼標籤
all the rage 風靡一時 indecisive 優柔寡斷
horoscope 星座 controlling 控制慾強
zodiac 黃道十二宮 hiring decision 用人標準
personality traits 個性    

資料來源 / 逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍 東海外文系副教授Cathy Dibello (94/07/03 聯合報C8)

94年度大學指考英文作文題目與範例

英文作文(20分)
說明:

1.依提示在「答案卷」上寫一篇英文作文。

2.文長至少120個單詞

提示:指定科目考試完畢後,高中同學決定招開畢業後的第一次同學會,你被公推負責主辦,請將你打算籌辦的活動寫成一篇短文。文分兩段,第一段詳細介紹同學會的時間、地點及活動內容,第二段則說明採取這種活動方式的理由。

作文範例I
  The college entrance exam is now over, and soon my fellow classmates and I will all go our separate ways. Before going off to start our respective college careers, we have decided to hold our first class reunion and get together one more time before we say goodbye. As class president, I was chosen to organize this party. Here is my plan for the evening.

  For starters we will meet up at our old high school around 4:30 on September 10th and pay our home room teacher a visit. After that, we will head to an all-you–can-eat hot pot restaurant, where we will eat to our heart’s content, chat, and catch up with each other. Next on the agenda is a trip to the KTV. There, we will sing all the popular songs that we listened to in high school. Finally, to cap the evening off, we plan to go to a hot spring resort in Beitou, where we will be able to relax and reflect together on our high-school years. After that it will really be time to bid each other farewell—until the next reunion that is.

  I believe that this schedule of activities will be the perfect combination for my classmates and me. We will be able to revisit our school, eat, party and relax. In other words, there will be something for everyone to enjoy.

(資料來源:94.07.03聯合報B6台北補教協會提供)

作文範例II
  Hello, class. How long have we been apart since graduation? I am Gordon, your class leader. I am honored to have the pleasure to hold the first class reunion for all the classmates after our graduation. I hope I will do my best to make the reunion not only a meeting in which we renew our friendship, but also a celebration in which every one of our class share our triumph in the entrance exam! The time for the reunion is scheduled on August 18. Room 808 at Lai-Lai Sheriden Hotel will be waiting for you. A party is the basic part of this reunion. Besides, we will invite all the teachers—including Jack, our beloved English and homeroom teacher.

  

Maybe some of you know Jack is going to get married—and the one he is going to marry is our strict Mandarin teacher—Anne. Poor Jack! So before his marriage, we will give him a stag party and we will incorporate this party into our reunion. Of course, you guys know—there must be some surprise for all of the participants, for example, a hot girl popping out of the closet! And I promise there are more than this! Hope to see you soon!

(資料來源:94.07.03中華日報20版 宏達補習班提供)

看看滿分作文 怎麼寫的

  [記者孫蓉華/台北報導]今年大學指考英文作文及翻譯都拿到滿分的李思瑾,昨天憑著記憶重寫指考英文作文,即以同學會主辦人身分,說明活動方式內容及理由。她說,段落與考試時的要求可能有出入,僅供參考啦。

她的英文作文如下:
  Since I have the honor to hold our first class reunion, our team, including me and few other classmates, have finally decided how this party will go. Firstly, considering that we girls are definitely going to be very wild and noisy, therefore we choose to hold the party at the Cashbox KTV, nest to our school rather than a high-class restaurant. As to how the party will go, we have decided several games, including singing, of course, gift-ex-changing, and most importantly, the girl chat. Also the date will be on July 10th, from 1pm to 5pm. The reason why we chose this date is that we think you girls might want to have some personal time with your family and friends, therefore we set the date on mid-July. That’s how our first reunion will go. Remember, it’s on July 10th, start from 1pm, and don’t be late. Also don’t forget to bring your little present.

〈聯合報 94.7.21 C8版〉

Ouo Vadis      小仲   

  大約兩個月前在電影院裡看到一張預告片,鏡頭所攝的是年邁的聖彼得對著天空說:Lord, quo vadis? 大概字幕譯者不熟悉《聖經》故事,又無劇本參考,但憑影片中對話翻譯,結果銀幕上出現的竟然是:「主啊:冰冷的身體。」譯者將quo vadis聽成cold bodies, 不禁令人拍案叫絕。

  這是一個什麼故事呢?耶穌遇害後,彼得在羅馬任首任主教,並為首任教宗。但好景不常,教徒遭受羅馬皇帝Nero迫害。相傳彼得此時擬逃離羅馬,途遇顯靈之耶穌而問之:「Quo vadis?」(主往何處去,Whither goest Thou?)耶穌答以為救教徒欲赴羅馬再受嵥刑,彼得聞之而驚,遂在羅馬殉教。波蘭小說家Henryk Sienkiewicz因作Quo Vadis一書,電影Quo Vadis故事亦本於此。

  在拉丁文中,quo有好幾義,其中之一為whither、to what place,或where。動詞「去」的原型為vado,現在式第二人稱單數為vadis。用現代英語翻譯就是Where are you going?是一句極普通的話。

  拉丁文之於西歐各國文字,有如我國古文之於語體文。我國學生必修古文,西歐各國學生亦必修拉丁文。我學生中習拉丁文者不多,但學習英文的學生倘若能加修一種拉丁語系的文字,如法文、西班文、義大利文、萄葡牙文,則對於英文的學習必有幫助。

〈94.7.7中央日報17版〉

Love Them, Don’t Leave Them

  In recent years, pets have become increasingly popular in Taiwan. In many cases, pets area treated like members of the family. In return for their pets’ devotion and unconditional love, owners pamper their animals with special food, toys, and sometimes even winter clothing. Responsible owners also pay for veterinarian expenses, including shots and neutering; kitty litter for cats; and microchip implantation for dogs.

  But unfortunately, not all owners are so responsible. Some dump their pets when they become tired of them, contributing to Taiwan’s stray animal problem. These unwanted animals, forced to live on the streets, can spread waste and disease. Some of these animals end up in animal shelters, where they may be put to sleep if no one adopts them.

  Before you buy a pet, remember that it is not just a cute, disposable toy. Rather animals are living begins that need your love and protection.

愛牠們,就不要離開牠們!

  近年來飼養寵物大為流行,許多個案顯示,寵物常被當成家庭成員。為了報答寵物的奉獻與無條件的愛,飼主常用特殊食物、玩具、甚至買冬天的寵物裝來溺愛牠們。有責任感的飼主付獸醫醫療費,包括花錢給貓打預防針、動結紮手術和買貓砂給貓大小便,和給狗植晶片。

  不幸的是並非每個飼主都很有責任感,有的養煩了就丟,造成台灣流浪動物的問題。這些沒人要的動物,被迫滯留街頭,牠們亂大小便和傳播疾病,有的最後流落動物庇護所,沒人領養就只有安樂死。

  買寵物之前,請記得寵物可不是可愛、用了就丟的玩具,牠們是有生命的動物,需要你的愛和保護。

字彙Vocabulary

devotion 奉獻 implantation 植入
unconditional love 無條件之愛 dump 丟棄
pamper 寵愛 stray 流浪
veterinarian 獸醫(簡稱vet) waste 大小便
shot 打針 animal shelters 動物庇護所
neutering 結紮 put to sleep 動物安樂死
kitty litter 貓砂 adopt 收養
microchip 晶片 disposable 用過即丟

資料來源 / 逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍、東海外文系副教授Cathy Dibello (94.7.10 聯合報C8)

不可抗力

  最近審核翻譯案件時,譯者將「不可抗力」譯為unforeseeable circumstances,是否妥適,爰提出討論。
按unforeseeable circumstances指不能預知的情況。而不可抗力則為force majeure。依據《布氏法律大辭典》(Black’s Law Dictionary):”force majeure 指an event or effect that can be neither anticipated nor controlled”,即無法預料且無法控制之事件或效應。

  又稱”The term includes both acts of nature(e.g. floods and hurricane)and acts of people(e.g. riots,strikes, and wars.)”此詞包括大自然之行為(如洪水及颱風),以及人的行為(如暴動,暴動,及戰爭)。

  Force majeure是法文,亦作force majestueuse(法文),vis major(拉丁文),或superior force(英文)。在法律文件及外交文書中多用來表示「不可抗力」。

  「不可抗力」即分大自然行為及人的行為。其屬大自然行為者,西方國家又稱之為vis divine(拉丁文),或act of God(英文)。

  Act of God又稱act of nature,或act of providence。依據《布氏法律大辭典》:“act of God”指an overwhelming,unpreventable event caused exclusively by forces of nature,such as an earthquake,flood,or tornado。The definition has been statutorily broadened to include all nature phenomena that are exceptional,inevitable,and irresistible,the effects of which could not be prevented or avoided by the exercise of due care or fore sight。一種純然由大自然力量所造成的勢不可擋且無法預防的事件,如地震,洪水,或龍捲風。此一定義又由法律加以擴展,包括一切特殊的,無法避免的,與無法抗拒的自然現象。而因此現象之效應無法經由謹慎或遠見加以預防或避免者。

  因此,「不可抗力」與unforeseeable circumstances不同,應譯為force majeure。

(94.07.21 中央日報 17版 小仲)

KTV Parlors

  While Taiwanese are known for being industrious workers, we also know how to have fun after work. All over the island, KTV parlors offer us the chance to let our hair down. “KTV,” an acronym for karaoke television, originated in Japan. In Japanese, karaoke literally means “empty orchestra.”

  Why has karaoke become such a popular form of entertainment in Taiwan? For one thing, with the help of recorded music and synchronized lyrics flashed on the TV screen, even an amateur can sing like a professional. Moreover, in secluded private rooms in KTV parlors, people can shake off their self-consciousness, taking turns entertaining each other.

  However, under the influence of alcohol, some people go wild and even act in ways they will later regret. In one case, for instance, one “victim” was forced to undress and was then smeared with butter. While KTV goers are having great fun, they should remember not to cross the fine line or the party will end unpleasantly.

唱卡拉OK

  雖然台灣人工作的拼勁廣為人知,我們也知道如何在工作之餘找樂子。台灣遍及全島的KTV正符合這種需要,讓人縱情歡唱。KTV是「卡拉OK電視」的簡稱,源於日本,字面的意思原本是「空的交響樂」。

  為什麼卡拉OK在台灣會成為如此熱門的娛樂活動?首先,著錄音帶和在電視上與音樂同步閃爍的歌詞,即使一個業餘人士也能唱得好像專業歌手。另外,在隔絕的KTV私人房間裡,人們可除卻自己的害羞心理,輪番上陣,彼此互娛。

  不過通常在酒精的作祟下,許多人開始放肆,甚至做了讓他們事後會後悔的事,例如,「受害者」被迫脫去衣服,接著全身塗滿牛油。唱卡拉OK的人也許很樂,不過要記得不逾矩,否則唱歌的聚會最後會不歡而散!

字彙Vocabulary

KTV parlors 卡拉OK professional 職業人士
industrious 工作勤奮的 secluded 隔絕的
let one’s hair down 盡情放鬆 shake off 擺脫
acronym 簡稱 self-consciousness 自覺、害羞
literally 字面上的 go wild 放肆
synchronize 同步 smear
lyrics 歌詞 KTV goers 上卡拉OK唱歌的人
amateur 業餘人士 cross the fine lin e 逾矩

資料來源:逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍、東海外文系副教授Cathy Dibello (94.7.26 聯合報 C7)

Buyer Beware!

  Last month’s headlines revealed shocking news about some of the food sold for this year’s Dragon Boat Festival. A reputable company’s zongzi contained tainted pork that it bought from an illegal meat supplier. The diseased animals had been butchered in an underground slaughterhouse in violation of government regulations.

  This scandal is not an isolated incident. In many cases, unscrupulous businessmen have sold substandard food because they are more concerned with profit than public safety. In one of the country’s most notorious cases, unethical merchants even sold contaminated cooking oil to schools.

  Fortunately, the government has taken steps to crack down on criminals who violate food safety laws. At the same time, however, consumers must remain vigilant to protect themselves against unprincipled businessmen.

買東西,張大眼!

  上個月的頭條新聞揭露一段有關端午節應節食品的驚人消息,一家頗負盛名食品公司賣的粽子,用的居然是買自非法豬肉供應商的腐敗豬肉。這些病豬在地下屠宰場宰殺,違反了政府的法規。

  這個不法案件並非獨立事件,事實上許多案例顯示,黑心商人為了賺取暴利,不顧民眾健康而販賣不合標準的食品。台灣最惡名昭彰的例子是沒良心的商家居然賣給學校遭(多氯聯苯)污染的食用油。

  好在政府已開始取締違反食物安全法的不法份子,消費者同時應該好好保持警惕,好好保護自己,以對付沒有原則的商人。

字彙Vocabulary

headlines 頭條新聞 substandard 不合標準的
reputable 有名的 notorious 惡名昭彰
tainted 腐敗 unethical 沒道德的
butchered 被宰 crack down 取締
slaughterhouse 屠宰場 consumers 消費者
violation 違反 vigilant 警惕的
scandal 醜聞 unprincipled 沒原則的
unscrupulous 黑心的    

資料來源/逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍東海外文系副教授Cathy Dibello (94.8.2.聯合報C7)

辛巴威新「皇宮」 小仲

  某大報上月底翻譯《紐約時報》報導稱,「非洲南部國家辛巴威的新皇宮用的是中國製造的藍色屋瓦。」云云。心中頓時產生了一個大問號.

  好在現代資訊極為方便,隨時可以對照原文。《紐約時報》的原文為:”His new 25-bed-room palace is covered with midnight-blue Chinese roof titles.” 但是兩相對照,一般學生還是看不出來此一翻譯有何不妥。蓋palace者,皇宮也。實則不然。

  首先,非洲過去當然也有王國(kingdom),因此便有王宮(royal palace),如埃及、蘇丹。甚至有帝國(empire),因此有皇宮(imperial palace),如衣索比亞。又中非共和國一九七六年一度改制為帝國,當然亦有皇宮,惟一九七九年皇帝卜卡薩被推翻,恢復共和。因此現在整個非洲大陸上已無帝國,當然無皇宮。至於王國,則有摩洛哥、史瓦濟蘭,及賴索托,因此僅有王宮而已。

  其次分別談宮與palace。依據《爾雅•釋宮》釋文:「古者貴賤同稱宮,秦漢以來,惟王者所居稱宮焉。」由於這個定義,現代建築,無論多麼富麗堂皇,除宗教外鮮有自稱「宮」者。

  然而,在西方文字中,palace一字的意義則並非如此狹窄。除王者之居外,主教或總主教之官舍亦稱palace。此外,任何大或華麗之住宅(any large or splendid residence),或任何堂皇之公共大廈(a stately public building),皆可稱之為palace。因此,在西方文字中遇見palace一字,並不必然翻譯為宮,唯有imperial palace及royal palace必須譯為皇宮及王宮。例如:西班牙文中Palacio de Justicia應譯為司法大廈,而非司法之宮。
明乎此,則我國總統府大廈一般譯為Presidential Office Building,值得商榷。並不是翻譯錯誤,而是不夠貼切,應譯為Presidential Palace較妥。因為building是任何一種建築,唯有palace才顯現它是一棟堂皇的大廈。總之,宮與palace兩字 並不完全同義,青年學子宜加注意。

  因此,《紐約時報》上面這段報導,指的是穆加比總統二十五個房間的堂皇「官邸」,不能譯為「皇宮」,其理至明。

(94.8.4 中央日報17版 )

Taiwan’s Cornucopia: Fruitful Abundance

  This summer Taiwan’s fruit made international news when China allowed the duty-free import of 15 varieties . Although the decision was politically controversial in Taiwan , Chinese were willing to spend extra money for our high quality fruit . Indeed , Taiwan’s fruit is appreciated not just in China , but also here at home and in many other countries .

  Blessed with a subtropical climate and fertile soil , Taiwan has a flourishing fruit industry . Some species are seasonal . For instance , summer species include lychees , dragon’s eyes , and mangos . In the winter we can enjoy fresh oranges and tangerines . Some fruits , like pineapples and wax apples , grow year round .

  Using modern technology , farmers have improved the quality and variety of Taiwan’s fruit even further . Thanks to nature and science , Taiwan is a fruit-lover’s paradise .

水果王國─台灣

  今夏大陸讓台灣15種水果免關稅進口,台灣水果上了國際新聞。雖然讓水果輸進大陸的決策在台灣政壇還是爭議不休,大陸人卻很願意多付一些錢來買我們的高品質的水果。不錯,台灣水果不但在大陸為人所愛,在台灣及其他許多國家也是受人青睞。

  台灣有幸處在亞熱帶,土地肥美,水果產業生意鼎盛。有的水果種類生長有季節性,如荔枝、龍眼和芒果等夏季水果;冬季我們則可以享用柳丁和橘子;有的水果如鳳梨和蓮霧一年到頭生長。

  台灣果農利用現代科技進一步改良水果的品質和種類,由於自然和科學相得益彰,台灣自然成了水果愛好著的天堂。


字彙Vocabulary

cornucopia 豐富 Species 種類
duty-free 免稅 Seasonal 季節性的
import 進口 lychees 荔枝
controversial 爭議性的 dragon’s eyes 龍眼
subtropical 亞熱帶的 tangerines 橘子
fertile 肥沃的 wax apples 蓮霧
flourishing 興盛繁榮的 paradise 天堂
industry 產業    

資料來源/逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍 、東海外文系副教授Cathy Dibello (94.8.16 聯合報 C7)

同性戀人權

  最近審核譯稿,譯者將「同性戀人權」譯為”gay and lesbian civil rights”,並不能稱其翻譯錯誤,但嫌累贅,試言其詳。

  同性戀在我國古已有之,但這個詞是現在名詞。舊時國人僅知男子之間有同性戀之事。按男寵昔稱「玩相公」,「相公」者,年輕男子也。文謅謅的說法是「斷袖之癖」。

  《辭海》斷袖條謂:「漢哀帝幸董賢,與共臥起;嘗晝寢偏藉上袖,上欲起,賢未覺,不欲動賢,猶斷袖而起。(見《漢書董賢傳》)」斷袖之癖本此。

  英文中同性戀最正式的用語是homosexual,是名詞,也是形容詞。異性戀是heterosexual、雙性戀是 bisexual。

  Gay字則有數義,正面如快樂的、歡喜的、輕快的、華麗的、五光十色的;負面如放蕩的、淫佚的。其後,美國俚語開始指放肆的、無禮的,及同性戀者。

  約翰˙史特勞斯(John Strauss, Jr)所作的名曲<當我們年輕的時候>(One Day When We Were Young),大家都耳熟能詳,歌詞中:”and music was never so gay’’應譯為:「樂聲從未如此的輕快。」可見,此字是正面的。

  Gay之作「同性戀」解,依據《美國俚語辭典》(Dictionary of American Slang),始自一九二0年代。作此解時,與homosexual完全同義,並不分男女。迨lesbian 一字出現,專指女同性戀,因此,一般人開始以gay字專指男同性戀,lesbian 專指女同性戀者。事實上,gay字並不專指男性,而兼指男女兩性同性戀者。是以譯者將gay and lesbian兩字併用,實嫌累贅,應刪去lesbian一字。

  次談「人權」,人權為”human rights”、民權為”civil rights”。惟無論何者,在此用rights一字即已足。英文與中文在遣詞用字方面有異曲同工之妙,即力求其簡約,而意義復不失完整。如「消防局」稱”fire department”毋需用”fire- fighting department”;防癌協會稱”cancer society”,並不需用”anti- cancer society”。

總之,「同性戀人權」,譯為” gay rights”可也。

(94.8.18中央日報17版 小仲)

 

The Widening Wealth Gap

  In recent years , social activists have voiced their concerns about underprivileged groups in Taiwan . Although Taiwan’s income gap between the rich and the poor is relatively smaller than that of many other countries , it also slightly decreases from 6.07 in 2003 to 6.03 in 2004 , many people cannot help worry about the gradually widening wealth gap in Taiwan .

   Many families with low incomes have breadwinners who are elderly , single parents , or aborigines . Some of them have been unemployed for quite a while . The best way to help them is to increase job and educational opportunities . The government already offers some vocational services programs and tuition exemptions to low-income families . At the same time , however , many critics contend that the government’s tax policies favoring the rich rather than the poor have increased the wealth gap .

   While the government’s policies do affect the economy , we should also reflect on what society demands of us personally , Recently , for instance , a teacher who the lottery donated 50 million NT dollars to charities . Like this woman , we should all ask ourselves what we can do to help those who are less fortunate than we are .

貧富差距

  近年來社運活躍人士常關切台灣的弱勢族群,雖然台灣的貧富收入差距比其他許多國家相對來得小,所得差距也從2003年的6.07稍降為2004年的6.03,不過許多人還是不得不擔心台灣逐漸拉大的貧富差距。

   許多低收入家庭的經濟支柱多為老年人、單親或原住民,其中有的已失業了一陣子了。幫助這些家庭最好的方法是給他們工作和教育機會,政府其實已經提供低收入家庭一些就業輔導方案和學費減免,可是,同時有許多批評者卻堅稱,政府幫富不幫窮的稅收政策導致貧富不均。

   雖然政府政策的確影響經濟層面我們也應反省社會對我們個人的要求是什麼,舉例來說,最近有位老師將贏得樂透的五千萬元獎金全數捐給慈善機構。如同這位女士,我們應該捫心自問,我們能做什麼來幫助這些比我們不幸的人。

字彙Vocabulary

social activists 社運活躍人士 vocational 職業的
underprivileged 弱勢的 tuition exemption 免學費
income gap 所得差距 low-income family 低收入家庭
breadwinner 經濟支柱 critic 批評者
elderly 老人 wealth gap 貧富差距
single parent 單親 demand 要求
aborigine 原住民 charity 慈善機構
unemployed 失業    

資料來源:逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍、 東海外文系副教授Cathy Dibello〈94.8.23聯合報C6〉

Brown-nosing Culture

  Over the past few days, Taiwan has been shrouded in the “brown-nosing culture.” Some examples of these are the “brown-nosing questions,” the “brown-nosing bridge,” and the “brown-nosing troops.” With so much negative wordplay going around, it isn’t hard to understand why Premier Frank Hsieh is telling the general public to mind their “personal hygiene.”

  The rise of this brown-nosing culture can be traced to this year’s senior examination for lawyers, where 78 out of 100questions have something to do with President A-bian. Yet another brown-nosing drama is related to the Hsuehshan (Snow Mountain) Tunnel’s temporary bridge, which was built on a NT$1.5 million budget, solely for the transportation convenience of A-bain and some high ranking officials. The “brown-nosing troops” refer to the Hsinchu air base troops who were forced to give their holiday to rehearse songs and troop formation to welcome the president.

  It would be fair to say that the real victims here are the horses. There they were, living their lives without bothering anybody, and yet, they are associated with “brown-nosers.” We can’t help but wonder: do our ancestors hold a grudge against these creatures? You see, a lot of our negative idioms have something to do with horses, such as: ”every ass likes to hear himself bray,” ”old and unaccomplished,” “to give something away,” “badly battered,” and “to suffer an accidental setback”…

馬屁文化

  最近台灣籠罩在一片「馬屁文化」中:馬屁題、馬屁橋、馬屁軍…處處馬屁聲,難怪謝院長要大家多注意「個人衛生」。

  這次的「馬屁題」,指的是台灣今年舉行的律師高考國文科試卷中,100分的考題竟有78分與阿扁總統有關。「馬屁橋」指的則是雪山隧道的有關單位為了阿扁總統及高官的交通方便,特地花了150萬所搭建的一座便橋。「馬屁軍」指的則是新竹空軍基地的官兵被迫犧牲休假,排練歌曲和隊形,只為了歡迎阿扁總統視察基地。

  平心而論,這些事件最大的受害者是可憐的馬兒。好端端的一隻動物,也沒招誰惹誰,現在竟然與「馬屁精」扯上關係,使人不禁懷疑我們的老祖先可能與馬有仇,不然怎麼有這麼多不好的成語,都與馬而有關呢?「馬不知臉長」、「馬齒徒增」、「露出馬腳」、「人仰馬翻」、「馬失前蹄」…?

字彙Vocabulary

brown-nosing (adj.) 拍馬屁的;諂媚的 rehearse (v.) 預演;演習
brown-nose (v.) 拍馬屁 formation (n.) 隊形;形成之物
brown-noser (n.) 馬屁精 ancestor (n.) 祖先
shroud (v.) 籠罩 grudge (n.) 惡意;怨恨
troops (n.) 軍隊 negative (adj.) 負面的
wordplay (n.) 俏皮話 setback (n.) 挫折;倒退
trace (v.) 追溯 unaccomplished (adj.) 無成就的;無技能的
Senior examination for lawyers 律師高考
temporary bridge 暫時搭建的橋;便橋
high ranking official 高階官員

執筆:國立台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君     (94.9.13聯合報C7版)

「崛起」、「再崛起」

  西洋人近來常稱「中國的崛起」(the emergence of China),中國大陸亦自稱「和平崛起」(peaceful rise),此處不談政治意涵,僅就文字而言,「崛起」一詞頗值推敲,是言其詳。

  《辭海》:「崛,特起貌。」《文選》張衡<西京賦>:「神明崛其特起。」這樣的解釋還是不夠明白。按在地質學上,平地上突然出現陡峭的一座山,就叫做崛起。借用於歷史,描述一個原不見經傳的民族,突然間壯大,亦稱崛起。

  我們可以說馬其頓民族的崛起,產生了亞歷山大大帝國,蒙古人的崛起,造成了蒙古大帝國。俄羅斯民族的崛起,更與近代史息息相關了。

  筆者三十多年前首次遊歐洲時,在書店看到了一張陳舊的歷史圖表,從埃及、巴比倫、希臘、羅馬,一直畫到近代。其中在十六世紀的一點上,畫了一些東方人,說明則稱:「華人在世界舞台上出現。」(The Chinese came to the world scene)意思是說,在此之前,華人是不見經傳的。看了心中又好氣、又好笑。好在這是一張陳舊的歷史圖表,只能說這個圖表製作者的無知,他顯然以為「世界」就是他們的世界,而不知道當華夏已有絲綢時,他們的祖先還在茹毛飲血的時代呢!

  同樣的,直到清初,我們還是自認為天下,四方皆是化外、蠻夷之邦也。這也代表當時國人的無知。
但是到了二十一世紀的今天,東方與西方對彼此的歷史、文化皆有相當的了解,怎麼可以稱「中國」是「新興國家(emerging state)」?中國大陸又如何可以自稱「崛起」呢?

  秦朝即已統一天下,成為典章制度齊備的大帝國,漢唐盛事姑且不論,明成祖時派鄭和下西洋,其所率艦隊較當時世界各國海軍的總和猶大。當時的明朝是世界上不折不扣最強最富的國家。

  今日歐美倘認為中國大陸日漸壯大,則應稱「中國的再起」(the resurgence of China),而中國應自稱「中國的復興」。

  「復興」有resurgence、revival、restoration、renaissance諸義,大陸自稱以the resurgence of China較為相宜。話說回來,倘中國自稱「中共的崛起」,指一個政黨的突起,自無不可,因為中共成立於一九二一年,在此之前,並無中共。

  筆者曾在各種場合向對岸學著表達上述看法,好在他們現已不再用「和平崛起」,而稱「和平發展」,是一大進步。

  走筆至此,有看到此間某自稱大報的新聞報導稱「石原稱中朝威脅,日將再崛起」云云。筆者不知法新設通訊稿原句如何,但中文用「再崛起」一詞,委實是講不通的,應稱「再起」才是。

94.9.15 中央日報 17版 小仲

Friends and Family Gather on Full Moon

  The Moon Festival , also known as the Mid-Autumn Festival , is one of the three major holidays in Taiwan . The most prominent protagonist of this holiday is none other than the lady who flew up the sky to live in the Moon Palace , Chang Er.Luckily for her , she had the Jade Rabbit , Wu Gang and occasional astronauts from Earth to keep her company on the moon ; or else she would have bitterly regretted having swallowed her husband Hou-yi’s elixir .

   On this moon cake and pomelo foodfest , it would be customary to hold a barbeque or throw a party with friends and family . Be it on the front porch , the rooftop or at the park , people can devour food while gazing up the moon , fantasizing about waltzing with Chang Er on top of the moon .

   But be aware ! You many really dance with Chang Er sooner than you think . All you have to do is go on using over-bleached bamboo chopsticks and aluminum foil which releases toxins when heated . Also , if you consume too much of the cancer-causing charred meat from your numerous bar-beque parties , believe it or not , you’re already halfway from meeting Chang Er up in the sky !

月圓人團圓

  中秋節是台灣的三大節慶之一。這個節慶最廣為人知的主角便是飛上月宮的嫦娥。幸好月亮上有玉兔與吳剛、以及偶爾從地球造訪的太空人與她作伴,不然嫦娥可能會很後悔當初偷吃了丈夫后羿的長生不老藥。
在這個可以狂吃月餅與文旦的節日,大家傳統上還是與親朋好友舉辦烤肉大會。不管在家門前、在屋頂、在公園,大家都可以一邊狼吞虎嚥,一邊遙望滿月,幻想自己與嫦娥在月亮上共舞。

   小心,可別以為這只是幻想哦!只要大家在烤肉時多用加了漂白劑的竹筷、高溫時會釋放毒素的鋁箔紙、以及多吃含有致癌物質的燒焦肉,相信不久便可以與嫦娥在天上相見!

字彙Vocabulary

full moon 滿月 customary(adj.) 依據風俗習慣;慣例的
The Moon Festival (又稱the Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 porch(n.) 門廊 barbeque(n.) 烤肉
protagonist(n.) 主角;主人翁 devour(v.) 狼吞虎嚥
Moon Palace 月宮 fantasize(v.) 幻想
Chang Er 嫦娥 waltz(v.) 輕巧地跳;跳華爾滋舞
Jade Rabbit 玉兔 over-bleached(adj.) 過度漂白的
Wu Gang 吳剛 aluminum foil 鋁箔紙
astronaut(n.) 太空人 toxin(n.) 毒素
keep….company 與…作伴 consume(v.) 食盡;消耗
swallow(v.) 吞嚥 cancer-causing(adj.) 會導致癌症的
Hou-yi 后羿 charred(adj.) 燒焦的
elixir(n.) 長生不老藥;萬靈丹 halfway(adj.) 中途的
moon cake 月餅    
pomelo(n..) 文旦;柚子    

執筆:台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君(94.9.20 聯合報 C7)

文化水平

  一九四一年之前的大陸,以及現在的台灣,我們並不常用「文化水平」一詞,目前在大陸則成為日常用語。「文化水平」一詞本身並無不妥,指的是一個人在文化上的學養。但用來指某某人的教育程度,就極不妥適。

  教育程度與「文化水平」是兩碼子事。飽學之士王雲五先生僅小學畢業,後來在大學指導博士生。史學大師錢穆〈賓四〉先生完全沒有進入新式學堂。我們可以稱他們是「小學文化水平」嗎?或是「沒有文化水平」嗎?

  美國林肯總統沒有受過正式教育,但考取律師考試,繼而從政,並當選總統,成為美國偉大的總統之一。我們能說他「沒有文化水平」嗎?

  還有,無論我們喜不喜歡毛澤東,絕不能因為他僅上過長沙師範而稱他為「高中文化水平」的。

  相反的,也有一些教育程度不錯,但「文化水平」泛泛之輩,那就不便在此列舉了。

  總之,「教育程度」指的是受學校教育的程度。英文稱“formal education”或“educational attainment”。而「文化水平」則是一個人的學校教育,加上個人進修,再加上社會教育的總和,亦即學養,英文稱“cultural literacy”。

(94.9.29中央日報17版小仲)

Cash-For-Friendship Diplomacy

  President A-bian made state visits to allied countries in Central America in the past few days , announcing a pledge of NT$8 billion for a “co-prosperity fund.” The opposition camp and local citizens accused the government of running another episode of “money diplomacy.”

  Year after year , Taiwan spends millions on public relations and affairs firms just to get on the right side of “Uncle Sam ,”but Taiwan is still no closer in gaining entry into the United Nations . Taiwan has continually been under pressure form Washington to buy missiles and other weapons , and yet the U.S. claims that it has no obligation in helping defend Taiwan in the event of an attack by China . Taiwan has also been investing generous amounts of money on its allies , which only led to monetary aid scandals . The list of Taiwan’s woes goes on and on .

  Truth be told , the expenditure in question would seem minute compared to our country’s other expenses . It will cost us NT$80 billion to strengthen flood control and drainage functions , while arms procurement is also said to be worth over NT$400 billion !

  On the other hand , what does NT$8 billion mean to Taiwan people ? All it comes down to is just fewer cups of pearl milk tea and Louis Vuitton purses-what’s the fuss anyway ?

凱子外交

  前陣子阿扁總統出訪中美洲友邦,宣佈將以80億台幣成立「榮邦基金」,被在野黨及台灣人民罵到臭頭,認為又是一次「金錢外交」的戲碼。

  台灣年年花大錢請公關公司向「山姆大叔」說好話,結果還是進不了聯合國;天天被逼著買飛彈武器,美國卻還說沒責任在老共進犯時協防台灣;這幾年對友邦大肆灑錢,卻還陷入人家的金援醜聞…說起台灣的悲情,那還真不是一天一夜說得完的。

  其實比起其他花費,這些錢真的不算什麼。前陣子台灣治水的費用就要用800億,軍購據說也要花4000多億!不過台灣人也真是的,80億算什麼?不過就是少喝點珍珠奶茶、少買個LV包包,吵什麼吵?

字彙Vocabulary

cash-for-friendship diplomacy 凱子外交 obligation(n.) 義務;職責
state visit 國事訪問 generous(adj.) 慷慨的;豐富的
allied country 友邦 monetary aid scandal 金援醜聞
pledge(n.) 保證;誓約 woe(n.) 災禍;悲哀
co-prosperity fund 榮邦基金 expenditure(n.) 花費;支出額
opposition camp 反對陣營 minute(adj.)

 

極少的

 

episode(n.) 插曲;情節 expense(n.) 花費
money diplomacy 金錢外交 drainage(n.) 污水
public relations and affairs firm 公關公司 arms procurement 軍購
Uncle Sam 山姆大叔(及美國) pearl milk tea 珍珠奶茶
United Nations 聯合國 fuss(n.) 不必要的神經質;無所謂的激動、煩惱
missile(n.) 飛彈    

〈執筆/台科大應用外語係助理教授黃玟君 94.10.4聯合報c7〉

Video Hijinks

  A well-known celebrity recently suffered from insomnia and depression due to mounting pressure after being secretly videotaped. He eventually resolved his dilemma by holding a press conference and making the incident public. But video scandals are like a snowball rolling downhill; gathering momentum and size. This one involved not only an actress, but also a county councilor and several gangsters—definitely livelier than any prime time soap opera!

  Although the “Masturbation VCD” seemed not as juicy compared with the “Intercourse VCD” from a few years back featuring a city councilor, there are still lessons that may be learned:

  First and foremost, once videotaped, do not try to resolve the matter in private. Report the incident to the law enforcement authorities, no matter how inefficient they may seem to be. Second, do not in any case ask for help from gangsters, or risk a double-cross. Third, the “original copy” you paid money for will definitely not be the “original copy.” And last (and most importantly), do not take Viagra or Viazome from unknown sources!

光碟風波

  近來有一位知名藝人,因為被偷拍,搞得失眠、憂鬱症都上身,最後只好召開記者會,將事件公諸於世。不過這個光碟醜聞有如雪球向下滾一般,越滾越大;涉案人士包括女藝人、縣議員、黑道人士……,簡直比八點檔連續劇還精彩!

  這次的「自慰光碟」與幾年前某市議員的「性愛光碟」相比,雖然精彩度遜色不少,我們仍可從中學習教訓:

  首先,若遭偷拍絕不可私了,一定要求助警察伯伯,儘管他們的辦案效率可能很差。第二,被欺負了絕對不可找黑道幫忙解決,不然會被黑吃黑。第三,付錢拿到的「母帶」絕非「母帶」。最後(也是最重要的),絕不吃來歷不明的威而剛或威而柔!

字彙Vocabulary

hijinks(n) 胡鬧;狂歡作樂 masturbation(n) 手淫
celebrity(n) 名人 intercourse(n) 性交
insomnia(n) 失眠症 Feature 以…為號召;由…演出
depression(n) 消沈;憂鬱症 City councilor 市議員
videotape(n) 錄影 resolve(v) 解決
dilemma(n) 左右為難的狀況 Law enforcement authority 執法當局
Press conference 記者會 inefficient(adj) 效率低的;無能的
downhill 向下地;走下坡地 Double-cross 黑吃黑
momentum(n) 衝勁;動量 Viagra 威而剛
County councilor 省議員 Viazome 威而柔
gangester(n) 幫派份子;歹徒 Prime time soap opera 八點檔連續劇

(執筆/台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君 94.10.11聯合報C4 )

Double Tenth Day!

  On October 10, 1911, the National Father, Dr. Sun, Yat-sen, led his comrades in the 1911 Wuchang Uprising (otherwise known as the Hsinhai Revolution). As a result, the then-corrupt Manchu dynasty was overthrown. Consequently, the tenth of October was henceforth known as “Double Tenth Day,” which is also our nation’s birthday.

  In Taiwan, numerous festivities mark the celebration of every Double Tenth Day. These include the flag-raising ceremony in front of the presidential palace, the military review ceremony, folk art performances, and evening events such as the National Day firework display and music soiree.

  Although the festive air of the past few National Day celebrations were tinted with tension caused by the ongoing debate of unification or independence, most citizens do not really concern themselves with slogans like “One China,” “One County on Each Side,” “One Country, Two Systems,” or “ROC on Taiwan,” just as long as the social stability and economic prosperity of Taiwan are maintained!

雙十國慶!

  在西元1911年的10月10日,國父孫中山先生領導同志發動武昌起義(亦即「辛亥革命」),推翻當時腐敗的滿清政府。也因此,每年的10月10日是「雙十節」,也是我們國家的生日。

  在台灣,每年的雙十節都有許多慶祝活動,包括總統府前的升旗典禮、閱兵典禮、民俗技藝表演、晚間的煙火表演及國慶音樂晚會。

  雖然這幾年的國慶日,因為持續辯論的統獨問題而蒙上濃濃煙硝味,不過坦白說,對大多數民眾而言,只要社會安定、經濟繁榮,管他什麼「一個中國」、「一邊一國」、「一國兩制」、還是「中華國在台灣」!

字彙Vocabulary

Double Tenth Day 雙十節 soiree(n.) 晚會;社交活動
National Father 國父 tint(v.) 染色
comrade(n.) 夥伴;同志 tension(n.) 緊張狀態
Wuchange Uprising 武昌起義 ongoing(adj.) 持續的;進行中的
overthrow(v.) 推翻;毀滅 unification(n.) 統一
festivites(n.) 慶典;祝宴 independence(n.) 獨立
flag-raising ceremony 升旗典禮 slogan(n.) 口號;標語
presidential palace 總統府 stability(n.) 穩定性
military review ceremony 閱兵典禮 prosperity(n.) 繁榮;興旺
firework display 煙火表演 maintain(v.) 維持;保存

(執筆:台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君 94.10.18聯合報C7)

Political Compensation

  The NT$40-million company stock bonus allocated to the chairman of the China Steel Corporation(CSC)created much controversy. Taiwan’s economic situation has been in recession in the recent years . There are people who are ordered to write lines as punishment for not being able to pay for tuition. At the same time, there are people who assume the chairman position in many different companies and receive large dividends. Who in their right minds wouldn’t blow a fuse?

  Although the person in discussion has resigned and donated the stock bonus to charitable organizations, the fact that the Taiwan government is still offering executive posts to cozy up to particular persons remains a reality.

  Come to think of it, the pandemonium as seen in Taiwan olitics must be caused by a particular instant coffee commerial, which said:‘Share the good things with your good friends. Power should be split equally, money should be laundered collectively!Well, ‘absolute power corrupts absolutely. ’This has not been the first case of ‘political compensation’ and it would definitely not be the last!

政治酬庸

  最近中鋼董事長的四千萬分紅,以起許多爭議。本來嘛,台灣這幾年經濟差,有人窮到繳不起學費被罰寫,有人卻身兼多個董事長、享有巨額分紅,怎能不叫人生氣?雖然當事人已宣佈辭職及將分紅捐贈慈善機構,但是台灣政府長久以來,利用高階職務來拉攏特定人物的事實,卻沒有改變。

  說起來,台灣的政治會如此紛亂,還不是被某家即溶咖啡的廣告所害:「好東西要跟好朋友分享」。有權大家分,有錢大家撈!只不過「絕對的權利導致絕對的腐敗」,類似的「政治酬庸」不是第一次,當然也不會是最後一次啦!

字彙Vocabulary

political compensation 政治酬庸 executive post 管理階層的職位;
決策的職務
stock bonus 股票分紅 cozy up 拉攏;博取歡心
controversy(n.) 爭議 pandemonium(n.) 大混亂;喧鬧
recession(n.) (經濟)衰退;蕭條 instant coffee 即溶咖啡
punishment(n.) 處罰 commercial(n.) 商業廣告
tuition(n.) 學費 split(v.) 分裂;分開
assume(v.) 擔任;從事 launder(v.) 洗(錢;贓款)
dividend(n.) 股息;紅利 collectively(adv.) 集體地
blow a fuse 生氣;大怒 corrupt(v.) 腐敗;墮落
charitable organization 慈善機構    

〈執筆/台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君  94.10.25 聯合報 C7〉

黑吃黑

最近與青年朋友討論「黑吃黑」一詞,究應如何英譯,饒有趣味,特公諸同好。

問:可否譯為double-cross(俚語:欺騙、出賣)?筆者的答覆為尚不能曲盡其意,蓋此字中欺騙或出賣之雙方不必然是「黑」也。

  美式英文中有confidence game一詞,簡稱con game,或con(英式英文則稱confidence trick)。據《布氏法律大辭典》(Black’s Law Dictionary)其定義為:a means of obtaining money or property whereby a person intentionally misrepresents facts to gain the victim’s trust so that the victim will transfer money or property to the person(騙取受害人信任後,使受害人交出金錢或財產之手法)。如國人之金光黨即為con game之顯例。但此一詞中,受害人並非「黑」,而多是無辜之人。

  「黑吃黑」就是只一個騙徒利用同樣手法對付另一個騙徒,因此“a con game within a con game”可以表達「黑吃黑」的意涵。簡稱“a con within a con”自無不可。

  又一般的詐欺,英文字彙極多,有fraud、swindle,俚語中尚有scam、sting兩字,均為常用字。但「黑吃黑」中之「黑」與詐欺並不全然相同。

  如「黑吃黑」作動詞解,則當然需要另一種譯法。con字亦可作動詞,故可稱某某人was conned。但為指出某某人其本人為「黑」。由於行騙手法為con時,則行騙之人英文稱con artist。故「黑吃黑」作動作解時亦可譯為a con artist was conned by another。

倘允許我們斗膽杜撰,則double con(名詞)與double-con(動詞)似亦可以一個複合詞表達「黑吃黑」之意,並收簡明之效。

(94.10.27中央日報17版 小仲)

The Disappearance of October Glory?

  Shortly after October, most Taiwanese harbor the same thought: The glory days of October seem to be gone!The streets are filled with election campaign banners, whose numbers far surpass the amount of our national flags of “Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth”

  October was once the most-anticipated month among Taiwanese, and for good reason. Not only do we have the Double Tenth Day” to look forward to during the month, but also the “Retrocession Day” and the “Memorial Day of the Late President Chiang Kai-Shek” In such a month filled with national joy, flags are hung in every household, while celebrations and memorial events occurred everywhere. But the best part is, we get to have three days off for no apparent reason!

  Constant political turmoil in recent times makes for much grief among the public. In addition, with the advent of the “two-day-off weekend.”several national holidays have been scrapped. No wonder Taiwanese people are in so much melancholy!

不再光輝燦爛的十月?

  剛過完十月,大部分台灣人卻有個共同的感覺:光輝燦爛的十月似乎不再!而滿街飄揚的競選旗幟,也多過「青天白日滿地紅」的國旗。

  曾經,十月是個最令台灣人期待的月份。因為這個月不只有「國慶日」,還有「光復節」、「蔣公誕辰紀念日」。在這樣一個舉國歡騰的十月裡,不僅家家戶戶懸掛國旗,各種慶祝活動、追思活動也隨處可見;而最棒的,便是可以平白多放三天假!

  不過這陣子國內政治紛擾不斷,讓許多人都十分鬱卒。加上「週休二日」的到來,以往許多國定假日已不再放假,怎不讓台灣人鬱卒到最高點!

字彙Vocabulary

disappearance(n.) 消失 household(n.) 家庭;戶
glory(n.) 光耀;輝煌 memorial event 追思活動
harbor(v.) 懷著… apparent(adj.) 明顯的
election campaign banner 競選旗幟 turmoil (n.) 混亂;騷動
surpass(v.) 超過;超越 grief(n.) 苦惱;難過
national flag 國旗 advent(n.) 出現;到來
anticipate(v.) 預期;期待 two-day-off weekend 週休二日
Double Tenth Day 國慶日 scrap(v.) 廢棄
Retrocession Day 光復節 melancholy(n.) 鬱卒;憂鬱

〈執筆/台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君 94.11.1聯合報C7〉

Leave me be!Bad company

  An English proverb says, “A friend in need is a friend indeed.” Confucius has also added that good friends should be “straightforward, upright, and knowledgeable.” Poor Taiwan has been searching for friend around the world for years. It has even been offering cash enticements in exchange for friend-ship , just to lure those countries that are “poor, deceitful, and materialistic.”

  Senegal, friend of Taiwan, is the perfect example. A decade ago, the country cut diplomatic ties with Mainland China for monetary reasons. Yet now , it wants to switch allegiance to Mainland China for the same reason. Not feeling ashamed, Senegal further adds that “between countries there are no friends, only shared benefits.” Alas, we could definitely do without such friends!

  With Senegal gone, Taiwan is left with only 25 friends. But we need not despair, for “when it comes to making friends, quality matters more than quantity.” What’s more, rather than having to squander money year after year to provide for corrupt allies, wouldn’t it be better if we use the money to fund the nation’s school lunch?

走開!損友!

  西諺云:「在你需要時幫助你的,才是真正的朋友」。孔子也說,好的朋友必須「友直、友諒、友多聞」。可憐的台灣,多年來在世界各地辛苦尋找朋友,甚至不惜花大錢買朋友,遇到的卻偏偏都是「友貧、友詐、友現實」的傢伙。

  台灣的朋友塞內加爾就是最好的例子。這傢伙十年前為了錢跟大陸斷交,現在又為了錢與大陸建交。此國不但不覺得羞愧,還進一步說「國家之間沒有友誼,只有利益」。唉,這種朋友不要也罷!

  沒有了塞內加爾,台灣只剩25個朋友。不過大家別絕望,「朋友貴精不貴多」。而且與其每年撒錢讓友邦貪污,還不如將錢花在台灣學童的營養午餐!

字彙Vocabulary

company(n.) 伴侶 monetary(adj.) 金錢的
proverb(n.) 諺語;格言 allegiance(n.) 忠誠
indeed(adv. 實在地;真正地 ashamed(adj.) 羞恥的
straightforward(adj.) 直接的;坦率的 benefit(n.) 利益;好處
upright(adj.) 正直的;誠實的 despair(v.) 絕望
knowledgeable(adj.) 知識廣博的 quality(n.)
enticement(n.) 誘惑 quantity(n.)
lure(v.) 引誘 squander(v.) 浪費
deceitful(adj.) 詐欺的 corrupt(adj.) 腐敗的;貪污的
materialistic(adj.) 物質主義的;現實主義的 ally(n.) 盟友
diplomatic tie 外交關係 fund(v.) 提供資金

〈執筆:台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君 94.11.8 聯合報 c7〉

不同英語能力檢測比較

主要用途
一般英語能力檢測
出國留學英語能力測驗
商用英語能力檢測
測驗名稱
全民英語能力分級檢定測驗(全民英檢)
劍橋大學英語能力認證分級測驗(Cambridge-
MainSuite)
外語能力測驗(FLPT-English) 大學校院英語能力測驗(CSEPT) 電腦化托福測驗
(CBT
OFEL)
IELTS
(BandLevel)
多益測驗(TOEIC) 劍橋大學國際商務英語能力測驗(BULATS)
研發機構 財團法人語言測驗中心 英國劍橋大學英語能力認證中心 財團法人語言測驗中心 財團法人語言測驗中心 美國教育服務社

英國劍橋大學英語能力認證中心、英國文化協會、澳洲大學聯盟

美國教育服務社 英國劍橋大學英語能力認證
測驗項目
聽力、閱讀、寫作、口說
聽力、閱讀、寫作、口說 聽力、用法、字彙與閱讀、口說

第一級有聽力、綜合測驗,第二級為聽力、用法、字彙與閱讀

聽力、文法、結構、閱讀及寫作 聽力、閱讀、寫作、口說 聽力、閱讀 標準測驗有聽讀及用法,寫作、口說
報名費用(新台幣) 初級到高級從1080元到3950元不等,優級依報考人數評估費用 初級到最高級從2000元到5000元不等。 四項測驗合計1750元 500元 美金140元,約合新台幣4800元   依報考地區、方式不同,從1260元到1440元不等 分標準、電腦、寫作及口說等四項測驗,各項從1200元到1400元不等

資料來源:各測驗研發機構 製表:記者林麗雪(94.11.11民生報A2)

Foreign-, Hong Kong-, or China-Invested?

  In recent weeks, a TV station in Taiwan has been suspected of having “100 percent of foreign shareholdings,” and is thus in violation of the Satellite Broadcasting Law. All of a sudden, terms like “foreign-invested,” “Hong Kong-invested,” and “China-invested” are all over the place, leaving the general public completely baffled.

  Some say that “Hong Kong-invested” equals “China-invested,” and the TV station should have its license revoked. Others say that if “Hong Kong-invested” equals “China-invested,” then “Next Magazine,” “Apple Daily,” and “Watson’” would all have to be shut down.

  In truth, whether the station is foreign-, Hong Kong-, or China-invested is beside the point. At issue is whether the corporation is “Taiwan-taxed,” “foreign-taxed,” or “not-taxed.” If a business is using foreign capital to earn money and pay its taxes in Taiwan, this is to be encouraged! But if a business rakes in money from Taiwan, yet registers the company abroad to avoid taxes, it should be further investigated! Although, with government officials so preoccupied with campaign gimmicks, who in the world would still have the energy to work on such serious matters?

外資、港資、中資?

  最近這幾個星期,台灣某家電視台被質疑「外資持股達100%」,因而違反廣電法的規定。一時之間,「外資」、「港資」、「中資」滿天飛,聽得老百姓一頭霧水。

  有人說,「港資」=「中資」,這家電視台應被撤照。也有人說,如果「港資」=「中資」,那麼「壹週刊」、「蘋果日報、」「屈臣式」統統都應該關門!

  其實「外資」、「港資」、「中資」都不是重點,重點在於「台稅」、「外稅」、還是「沒繳稅」?如果一家公司拿外國資金在台灣賺錢、繳稅,其實值得鼓勵!但如果在台灣賺錢,卻將公司登記在外國來避稅,那才值得追究!只不過政府官員最近選舉花招都忙不完了,誰還有力氣去辦正經事呢?

字彙Vocabulary

suspect (v.) 懷疑 corporation (n.) 公司﹔企業
shareholding (n.) 持股 capital (n.) 資金
violation (n.) 違背;破壞 tax (n.)
Satellite Broadcasting Law / Radio and elevision Act 廣電法 register (v.) 註冊
foreign-invested (adj.) 外資的 avoid tax 避稅
baffle (v.) 使困惑 investigate (v.) 調查
equal (v.) 等於;相等 official (n.) 官員
license (n.) 執照 preoccupied (adj.) 全神貫注的
revoke (v.) 撤銷 campaign (n.) 活動
shut down 關閉 gimmick(n.) 花招

(資料來源:逢甲大學語言中心講師文庭澍 94.11.15聯合報C7)

Expose Culture

  From the occurrence of the foreign worker riot and the KRTC scandal to the gambling of the ”two Chens” and the legitimacy of the TVBS capital, Taiwan is now blanketed in a flurry of expose culture.

   Taiwan was once a place where people are simple, decent, and magnanimous. Then, out of the blue, a newfound culture became rampant around the island. TV and other media started different ”talk shows” to reveal gossip about entertainment celebrities. The talk shows eventually led to the rise of ”political shows” to disclose scandals of political figures just to boost ratings.

  Such expose culture seemed even more out of control with the coming of the elections. Not only do civil representatives start to expose scandals, other officials and even the president himself have also jumped on the bandwagon. Paparazzi are to the entertainment circle as ”Deep Throat” is to the political circle. People expose scandals whether or not they exist! Consequently, the general public's despite for media and political figures continues to rise while Taiwan, in turn, continues to sink!

爆料文化

  從外勞暴動、高捷弊案,到「雙陳」賭博、TVBS資金的合法性…,台灣現正籠罩在一片爆料文化中。
曾經,台灣是個民風純樸、人心厚道的的地方。但不知從何時起,小島上流行一種新興文化:電視媒體開始出現不同的「談話性節目」,大爆影視名人的八卦。接著許多「政論性節目」也開始興起,大揭政治人物的醜聞,以提高收視率。

   隨著選舉將屆,爆料文化似乎更形猖獗。不僅民意代表爆料,連官員、總統也紛紛跟著爆料。娛樂圈有狗仔隊、政治圈有深喉嚨。有料亂爆、沒料也爆!結果老百姓對媒體及政治人物的不滿情緒一直向上提升,而台灣,卻一直向下沈淪!

字彙Vocabulary

expose culture 爆料文化 gossip (n.) 八卦;閒談
occurrence (n.) 事件;發生 political show 政論性節目
riot (n.) 暴動;喧鬧 disclose (v.) 揭發
KRTC (Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Corp.) 高雄捷運 political figure 政治人物
gambling (n.) 賭博 rating (n.) 收視率
legitimacy (n.) 合法性 out of control 猖獗;失去控制
blanket (v.) 覆蓋;籠罩 civil representative 民意代表
decent (adj.) 好的;正當的 jump on the bandwagon 一窩蜂做某事;跟隨潮流
magnanimous (adj.) 慷慨大量的 paparazzi (n.) 狗仔隊
newfound (adj.) 新興的;新發現的 Deep Throat 「深喉嚨」;爆料者
rampant (adj.) 蔓延的 despite (n.) 怨恨;敵意
talk show 談話性節目    

執筆/台科大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君(94.11.29 聯合報 C7)

The Colorful Taiwan Elections

  Taiwan has “three abundances.” people, money, and elections. The recent year-end County Magistrates and City Mayors Election was believed to be not only a ”blue-versus-green” war of local authorities, but also a warm-up battle for the 2008 presidential elections.

  On election night in the US,television channels would display the US map on the screen and use red, blue, and purple to mark the Democratic,Republican,and 50-50 states. When compared with the US,Taiwan’s political colors are undoubtedly more kaleidoscopic!

  ON this color-sensitive island,everyone loves to categorize each other by using terms such as “pan-blue,” “pan-green,” or “pan-purple alliance”. TO complicate the situation even further, there are also “pro-unification radicals,” “pro-independence” radicals,” “oranges that have turned green,” or “yellow on the outside and blue on the inside”…Hey, why not make up our own “red party” and “indigo party,”so that Taiwan could then become a colorful “rainbow country!”

色彩繽紛的台灣選舉

  台灣有「三多」:人多、錢多、選舉也多。最近的年底縣市長選舉,不僅是「藍、綠」地方政權的攻防戰,也是2008年總統選舉的熱身戰。

  美國的開票夜,電視台會將美國地圖呈現在螢幕中,然後用紅、藍、紫色代表共和黨、民主黨必勝的州,以及兩黨支持率呈五五波的州。比起美國,台灣的政治色彩便顯得繽紛燦爛、多采多姿!

  在這個對「顏色」十分敏感的小島,大家最喜歡彼此亂扣帽子:你是「泛藍」、我是「泛綠」、他是「泛紫」。這樣還不夠,有人是「急統」、有人是「急獨」、還有人是「橘子綠了」、「外黃內藍」•••。嘿,我們何不自組「紅黨」及「靛黨」,這樣台灣便可以成為色彩繽紛的「彩虹國」!

字彙Vocabulary

abundance (n.) 豐富;充裕 kaleidoscopic (adj.) 萬花筒的;五花八門的
magistrate (n.) 長官;縣長 sensitive (adj.) 敏感的
versus (prep.) …對… categorize (v.) 分類
local authority 地方政府 pan-blue 「泛藍」
warm-up battle 熱身戰 pan-green 「泛綠」
presidential election 總統選舉 alliance (n.) 同盟
channel (n.) 頻道 complicate (v.) 使複雜
Democratic (adj.) (美國)民主黨的 unification (n.) 統一
Republican (美國)共和黨的 radical (n.) 激進份子
50-50 (adj.) 呈「五五波」的 independence (n.) 獨立
undoubtedly (adv.) 毫無疑問地 i ndigo (n.) 靛色

執筆/台大應用外語系助理教授黃玟君(94.12.6聯合報C7)

也談「外勞」

  高雄捷運虐待泰勞引起暴動,進而揭發層層弊案,社會各界評論不斷。此處要談的僅限「外勞」一詞的英譯。某大報十一月十一日「觀念平台」刊出專文。認為「外勞」一詞應譯為migrant worker為宜。特不揣鄙陋,提出一些看法供讀者討論。

  此詞乍看只有兩個字。大凡中學生都知道,「外」是foreign,指屬於另一國的,如foreign state(外國),foreign document (外國文件)。「勞」是勞工,直譯laborer,即以己之體力謀生者。但廣義的勞工則譯為worker。因此,「外勞」譯為foreign worker,原是沒有多大問題的。

  唯一需要進一步推敲的是「外」字。根據《布氏法律大辭典》(Black’s Law Dictionary),alien指“a person who resides within the borders of a country but is not a citizen or subject of that country”(住在一國國境之內而非該國之公民或臣民者)。故法律上稱境內之外國人為alien。具永居權外國人稱resident alien,不具永居權者稱non-resident alien。

  但自外星人(extraterrestrial alien)一詞出現之後,除法律名詞未改之外,社會上即避免稱外國人為alien,以免歧視之嫌。

  惟foreign一字則照用,如foreign students(外國學生),foreign tourists(外國遊客)。當然,美國大學也有矯枉過正的,將foreign students改為international students(國際學生),此則在語意學上就產生了一個新的問題。我們只能說:「本校學生來自世界很多國家」或「本校形同小型聯合國」,或“We have an international student body.”,但不能說:「本校有本國學生,也有國際學生。」因為國際還是包含本國的。

  我國國際機場入境通關櫃檯窗口標示則改得好,既不稱alien,亦不稱foreigner,則用non-citizen(非本國人),以與citizen(本國人)對照。

  上述專文中提到的migrant workers一詞,確實存在,但與在臺之外勞不全相同。Migrant與migratory同義。如候鳥可稱migratory birds,亦可稱migrant birds。他們有原居地(habitat),而隨季節遷移。Migrant workers亦如此,大陸各地俗稱「盲流」的工人,就叫migrant workers。他們的家鄉雖貧困,還是有家可歸的。另一種則是跨越國境隨季節到另一國工作。如墨西哥人每年越過國境到美國境內短期工作,採草莓、採柑橘、採蘋果,事後還是回鄉的。

  其次要談到euphemism(婉言、委婉說法)這個概念。比方說,人不願談死,就說某某人過去了,走了。英文亦如此,說passed away。近年來,有越演越烈之勢。如不說窮,而說低收入群(lower income bracket)。不說矮,而說在直立時遭到挑戰(vertically challenged)。而稱無證件外人(undocumented aliens),不一而足。

  因此,對於「外勞」一詞的英譯,最不受歡迎(實際上是正式法律用語)的,當然是alien workers,而foreign workers 委實是不錯的翻譯。

  倘使進一步分析,不難發現實則「外勞」是「外籍約聘勞工」的簡稱,他們依據合約來臺工作的,一般期間為三年。因此應譯為foreign contract workers。我們若不喜歡foreign這個字,則依據euphemism原則,稱他們為非移民約聘勞工(non-immigrant contract contract workers),應該是大家都可以接受的,只是嫌太長了。

總之,foreign workers 之譯法並無貶意,問題是我們應如何基於人道立場,善待外勞,而非譯名問題。

(94.12.8中央日報17版 小仲)